Hello world!

    Welcome to WordPress. This is your first post. Edit or delete it, then start writing!

    Copy: Ecograf’s descriptions in SoMe (Danish)



      Er du den slags forbruger som sætter stor pris på høj kvalitet, god service og bæredygtig produktion, uden at det koster en formue?

      Så skal du simpelthen læs videre!

      Ecograf er et moderne, digitalt trykkeri, hvor tillid, ekspertrådgivning og bæredygtig produktion er en æressag. Vi skaber værdi for dig gennem:

      • Tæt og ærlig dialog fra start til slut, som sikrer tilfredshed og udbytte.

      • Prisbevidste løsninger, der ikke går på kompromis med kvalitet.

      • Ekspertrådgivning – alt vores ekspertviden sættes til rådighed for dig.

      • En samlet produktion under ét tag, med in-house grafiker der samarbejder tæt med trykker, og sikrer tryksager af høj kvalitet.

      • En række specielle trykteknikker, der gør dine tryksager eksklusive og unikke.

      • Muligheden for at lægge opsætningen og AD-arbejdet i hænderne på en af vores grafiker. Vi hjælper gerne allerede fra idéudviklingsfasen.

      • Hjælp til at tænke ud af standarderne og finde nye kommunikative løsninger, som understøtter dit budskab.

      • Gratis miljømærkning af dine tryksager.

      • Den gode samvittighed ved at handle hos en lokal virksomhed, der løbende arbejder hen mod at minimere deres miljøbelastning.

      Vores kunder spænder næsten lige så vidt som vores produktsortiment.

      Vi har øje for det, der virker, og vi vil altid tale for, at du får den absolut bedste løsning. Fra vi første gang modtager din trykfil, til du står med det færdige produkt i hånden, er dine tryksager i de bedste hænder hos os.

      Vær tryg i trykken – vælg Ecograf.



      Ecograf er et moderne, digitalt trykkeri, hvor tillid, ekspertrådgivning og bæredygtig produktion er en æressag.

      At gøre det ordentligt behøver ikke koste mere.
      (Additional information)

      Lægger du vægt på tillid og personlig rådgivning?

      Vil du have, at dit trykte materiale afspejler den værdi og kvalitet, du lægger i dit arbejde?
      Ynder du at kalde en spade for en spade, og vil du gerne have prisen på grisen uden skjulte gebyrer og tillæg?
      Så er du ligesom os. Vi værdsætter kvalitet, og nyder de gode sider i livet. Vi har ikke som mål at være markedets billigste, men du vil sikkert ofte opleve, at vi er.
      Lægger du også vægt på sikkerhed, når du vælger samarbejdspartner?
      Sikkerhed for, at du får den rette løsning, sikkerhed for, at varen leveres til aftalte tid og sikkerhed for at kvaliteten altid er i top, og prisen aldrig er højere end aftalt, så matcher vi faktisk hinanden meget godt. Og et godt match, er jo en god start for en god handel.
      Læs mere på vores hjemmeside og kontakt os for at høre, hvordan vi kan øge værdien af dine tryksager.

      Article: How can print media help your business?


        Digital media is all around us. As consumers, we are constantly bombarded with awareness campaigns and tailored ads, written by a myriad of different companies, all relentlessly fighting for our attention.

        But the truth is that, as personalized as digital marketing can be, it’s still limited by the medium through which it is consumed: a flat, texture-less, rather lifeless screen. Digital catalogues are artificial, intangible, and in a way “unreal”. 

        Sitting with a printed magazine on your hands, however, is a whole different experience.

        Print media is a more palpable medium, which literally “forces” customers to physically connect with your brand. On a time when e-mail inboxes are full and a single swipe can delete an unopen newsletter, a physical print can be exactly what your business needs in order to:

        – increase awareness of your brand, and
        – build trust with your customers. 

        There has never been a time when people have had a stronger desire to disconnect. A survey of over 1000 consumers in the UK (2017) revealed that 47% of them believed they spend too much time on electronic devices, with 31% suffering from “digital overload” (that number rose to 58% amongst the 18 to 24-year-olds). Another study showed that the impact of digital consumption on health is gaining attention: fifty-three percent (53%) of over 10.000 participants were concerned that the overuse of electronic devices could be damaging their health, causing eyestrain, headaches and sleep deprivation. 

        Add to that the intrinsic benefits of print media (described below) and the fact that 57% of consumers admit to doing their best to avoid online advertisements. 

        Have I picked your curiosity yet?

        What exactly are the benefits of print over digital media?

        • Permanence: Print is durable

        Catalogues, posters, booklets and other printed media are physical items that can stay in offices and homes for months after they are received. The fact that they require space means they can remain on a fridge door or on top of a coffee table for days, where they will be available at any time one wants to continue reading. 

        How often do you go back to an e-mailed newsletter, a Social Media post or a digital ad?

        • Authority: Print inspires trust

        With most people overwhelmed by more-or-less relevant digital marketing, there is a certain feeling of legitimacy that comes from printed media. It requires a higher investment from a company, and it is therefore perceived as more deliberate and well-thought. Most people believe that the information they find in printed magazines and newspapers is credible and accurate. It is simply taken more seriously.

        A reason for this can be the fact that for our brain, our sense of touch is our “sense of truth”. We’ve all misheard things or been fooled by our eyes, but I’ve never heard anyone say they’ve “mistouched” something. On a subconscious level, tactile stimuli add credibility.

        Are you interested in being perceived as a trustworthy brand? Then a well-executed print marketing campaign could be exactly what you need. In the words of Olaf Hartmann (MD, Multisense Institut):


        “Digital communication picks the fruit from the tree of brand trust, but it doesn’t make the tree grow. Print is ideal for strengthening the roots of brand trust”.


        • Differentiation: Print can reflect your brand

        Printed media can be manipulated in ways that other media can’t, giving you and you company a much better chance of standing out from the crowd. 

        Print can be done in a wide range of materials and a variety of special effects and finishes can be added post-print. This translates into countless unique creative possibilities. Besides, print allows you to have complete power over typography, colors, graphics and designs without having to worry about operating systems or browser configurations.

        With embossing, metallic foil or glow-in-the-dark ink, or by choosing a specific type of paper, you can convey a message that fits your unique brand and goes far beyond the printed words.

        • Tactility: Print stimulates more of your senses

        Have you ever caught yourself, lost in thought, caressing a soft woolen sweater while shopping? Or felt the irresistible need to run your fingers over a book cover, feeling the touch of the different textures?

        We humans love touching things. And the more we like touching a product, the longer we will touch it and the less we will want to give it back. This is why touching enhances readiness to buy.

        Reading print is an experience that engages several of your senses: feeling a thicker, more porous paper through your fingers, the smell of ink (or maybe an added scent?), the sound of browsing pages… 

        Signals that stimulate multiple senses increase brain activity, get more attention and are more likely to be remembered.

        • Focus: Print is better at retaining people’s full attention.

        It is no secret that the digital age has reduced the human attention span considerably. With print media there aren’t any pop-ups or notifications distracting your multi-tasking customer from your carefully curated content. You get your reader’s full attention and focus – which guarantees a greater engagement and deeper understanding of your brand and message.

        • Memorability: Print can create more lasting impressions

        We’ve already mentioned how print stimulating more of your senses increases the likelihood that your message will be remembered. Well, another way to create something unforgettable is by being original, and when it comes to print, it’s fair to say only your imagination sets the limit. 

        Just look at this campaign (in Danish) for a shining example – teaser: it involves mussel shells and vacuum packing. Every single person who received the campaign reported remembering it and multiple recipients unsolicitedly expressed their enthusiasm for the idea and creative design of the campaign.

        Do you want to stand out from the crowd? Get creative with your printed media.

        • Emotional Impact: Print engages emotional responses.

        A research project by branding agency Millward Brown used fMRI brain scans to show that paper-based marketing caused more emotional processing and left a “deeper footprint” in the brain than digital marketing did. The study also found that physical materials are more “real” to the brain and can generate more emotionally vivid memories. 

        Why does it matter? 

        Emotions give more meaning and depth to the experience of a brand or product – they help create a bond between customers and your company, leading to long-term commitment. 

        • (Better) Communication: Print is easier to understand and remember

        Studies show that students can have significantly higher reading comprehension scores for texts read in printed media compared to digital devices. Research also indicates that readers of print books absorb and remember more information than readers of e-books, and that it takes 21% less cognitive effort to process print information, when compared to digital.

        What does this mean for you? Your costumers will probably understand and remember your message better when they read about it on print.

        • Happy people: Consumers prefer engaging with print

        Most people would agree that reading on paper provides a more enjoyable experience than using a screen. An international survey of over 10.000 consumers worldwide found that they preferred to read the printed version of books (72%), magazines (72%) and newspapers/news (55%) over digital options. Over half of these consumers (65%) also believed they gained a deeper understanding of news stories when reading print.

        Not only do consumers think reading on print is more enjoyable, but many of them also agree to the belief that they spend too much time on electronic devices (see graph). A lot of people are looking for good reasons to “switch off” and put away their electronics – it’s on your hands to give them one. 



        Now before you go delete all your social media accounts, let me say this: This is not an either/or situation. 

        The best ROI (Return of Investment) comes from campaigns across different media. According to Analytic Partners, leaders in analytics consulting, the same media budget spread over multiple channels can increase ROI by up to 35%. Thus, the challenge for marketing professionals lies on finding the right balance among the different platforms and media. 

        Think of digital and print as bread and butter, they go together. Even better, think of them as coffee and milk and mix them up! You can make your prints more interactive by adding codes for custom apps, NFC chips or QR codes. Or do like IKEA and turn them into a pregnancy test

        Digital marketing is gaining more and more territory but remember the kind of results that print media can help you achieve. In a nutshell:

        • Brands and products that are more trustworthy and easily remembered.
        • Better differentiation of your brand and product from your competitor’s.
        • Increased ROI. See for example Post Danmark’s case (in Danish). 
        • Increased customer loyalty.
        • Happy consumers that enjoy their interaction with your marketing materials and are more ready to make a purchase.
        • Your message is understood more clearly and remembered for longer.






        Interview with Olaf Hartmann, MD. from the German Multisense Institute for Sensory Marketing – online resource: https://www.printpower.eu/experts/olaf-hartmann/

        Delgado, P., Vargas, C., Ackerman, R., & Salmerón, L. (2018). Don’t throw away your printed books: A meta-analysis on the effects of reading media on reading comprehension. Educational Research Review25, 23-38.

        Mangen, A., Walgermo, B. R., & Brønnick, K. (2013). Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on reading comprehension. International journal of educational research58, 61-68)

        Canada Post, TrueImpact (2015). A bias for action – The neuroscience behind the response-driving power of direct mail (online publication). 

        Millward Brown (2009): Using neuroscience to understand the role of direct mail (online publication).

        Source: Two Sides (2019) – Busting the myths: A European study of consumer perceptions and attitudes towards print and paper.

        Science for non-scientists (intro to my PhD thesis)

          We live in a world where, despite producing enough food for everyone, the number of undernourished people went above 800 million in 2016 (FAO 2017). Since 2014, world hunger has been increasing every year. With projections estimating global population to reach 10 billion people by the year 2050, the challenge of food security needs to be tackled with extreme urgency.

          Increasing food demand will inevitably put pressure to further intensify agricultural production, while sustainability goals (and common sense) require us to reduce negative environmental impacts as much as possible. Thus, a balance needs to be achieved, where ecosystem services can be exploited and food production secured, while still conserving biodiversity and minimizing detrimental effects to our environment.

          Towards pesticide-free farming

          In recent years, the spread of health and environmental concerns among Danish consumers has led to increases in sales and import of products grown organically.

          By the end of 2015, 7% of all Danish farms were certified for organic production of primarily eggs, vegetables and dairy products (Danish Agriculture and Food Council 2015). Thus, the vast majority of farms still use conventional and/or intensive
          production methods.

          Conventional farms producing crops, fruits and vegetables, rely on various types of pesticides in order to combat weeds, insects and fungi. These chemicals can persist in the soil and migrate into groundwater systems, polluting our water supply and carrying the risk of dramatic non-target effects on other lifeforms. Contrarily, organic farming contributes to a variety of public goods in Denmark, with positive effects on, for example, biodiversity or human and animal health (Melby Jespersen et al. 2017).

          The Danish Government is committed to limiting the use of pesticides as much as possible. In 2013, the pesticide tax was  changed so those products causing the highest pesticide loads, i.e. those that pose the highest risk, became more expensive
          (Miljøministeriet 2013, Kudsk et al. 2018).

          In April 2017, the new and ambitious Pesticide Strategy 2017-2021 was approved (Ministry of Environment and Food 2017), highlighting the importance of using alternative methods to combat unwanted weeds and pests.

          In order to achieve the desired reductions in pesticide loads and to encourage conventional farmers to move into organic systems, it is of paramount importance that we develop and establish environmentally friendly methods for plant protection that serve as a desirable alternative to chemical pesticides, ultimately leading to a more sustainable food production.

          Sustainable plant protection

          Integrated Pest Management (IPM) involves the combination of different management approaches, like biological control, cultural practices or responsible use of pesticides. By synergistically combining different strategies, it aims at suppressing populations of agricultural pests while minimizing the risks to both consumers and the environment.

          One of the pillars of IPM action is biological control: the use of beneficial organisms, i.e. natural enemies, to control pest populations. Biocontrol focuses primarily on (i) modifying the agricultural landscape to accommodate permanent populations of beneficial insects or (ii) releasing populations of natural enemies that can suppress pest outbreaks at specific points in time.

          Beneficial insects were exploited already 1700 years ago, when farmers in ancient China used the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina to suppress pests in citrus orchards (Peng 1983). Today, that same ant is used for successful pest control in crops like pomelo, mango or cashew in Australia and South East Asia (Offenberg et al. 2013).

          There are several reasons why ants have great potential as biocontrol agents. Ants are abundant and form large and stable populations that can use chemical recruitment to quickly react to increases in pest numbers (Way & Heong 2009).

          Moreover, since ants are generalist predators, they can switch to another prey when a specific resource, e.g. pest species, becomes rare (Symondson et al. 2002). Even in scenarios where all prey is scarce, ants can survive periods of food shortage by cannibalizing their own brood (Sorensen et al. 1983, Rueppell & Kirkman 2005). These traits allow ant populations to persist in the environment when prey numbers are low, ensuring their presence in the system if and when pest populations start to reappear.

          However, and despite this potential, ants can often exacerbate pest problems and become an obstacle for successful biological control.

          [continues with another section, not included]

          Essay/Opinion: On job-seeking and cop shows


            Do you like cop shows? Detective stories? A good-old murder mystery?

            I love them. From Sherlock, to Bosch, Brooklyn 9-9 or Numb3rs (the last one being an old guilty pleasure of mine). I grew up watching reruns of Magnum P.I, Diagnosis: Murder and Murder, she wrote (thanks, mom and grandma). I love the whole “let’s solve a case” process, even in comedic settings.

            Maybe that’s why, while I was drying my hair yesterday, I had an epiphany:

            Being a job-seeker is really about doing detective work.

            [Okay, being a recruiter is probably even more detectivesque, but let me stick to the former statement for the sake of fun and continuity]

            “They say that genius is an infinite capacity for taking pains,” he remarked with a smile.
            “It’s a very bad definition, but it does apply to detective work.”

            [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle – A Study in Scarlet]

            I sit before my computer, with access to hundreds of potential suspects, via LinkedIn. Which one will open the door to my next job? Any good-old cop will tell you that leg work is the pillar of good police work. Think Mike Ehrmantraut – okay, maybe he’s not the best definition of “good” cop, but he’s damn good at his job, though. Patient. Thorough. Committed. You want those qualities for yourself, believe me.

            And so you start your leg work (or in this case, fingertip-work).

            You browse (pro)files with interesting titles, follow connections, identify known associates… and then, when you finally find a person of interest, the questioning begins. Friendly questioning, good-cop style, over a cup of coffee. You hope for cooperation, maybe you leverage your skills and some juicy info so the other person feels more inclined to help. Typical quid pro quo situation. You take out your little Moleskine notepad and fountain pen (no reason not to be a stylish detective) and scribble down anything and everything they say. Will you be able to understand your own hurried handwriting? You doubt it, but you can’t afford to slow down; you could miss the one clue that cracks the case.

            Maybe you strike gold on your first try, but most likely you won’t. Back into your suspect pool again. Next interview. More coffee. And each time, before you leave them, you hand them something:

            “Here’s my invitation to connect. If you remember anything that could help, stay in touch”.

            But you know in your heart, they most likely won’t.

            In between questionings, you collect and tidy up your evidence. After all, when you can finally present it to the judge (aka recruiter) it’d better be ready. A thorough timeline of your latest employment, a collection of fact-based competences, a mug-shot with a bit of a personality profile on the side. You may even give a little press conference in the hope that someone out there will come to you with tips.

            You slowly (but steadily) build a solid case. Evidential burden dictates that it’s you who has the obligation to produce evidence, to prove beyond the shadow of a doubt that you’re qualified for that position. Just like that, cop and prosecutor all in one.

            Well, now I’ve clearly moved on to lawyer shows, because I did watch seven seasons of The Good Wife at some point (and then Netflix took it down and I could never finish it. Anyone knows how it ends?).

            Gonna go put on my trench coat and look for POIs over a cup of black cof… I mean, tea. I drink tea. I have the feeling my job-seeking is going to be a little more exciting from now on.

            I hope yours too.

            Academic writing – Effect of pleometrosis and brood transplantation on colony growth of the black garden ant, Lasius niger

              ABSTRACT. In response to intra- and interspecific competition, ant colonies have evolved mechanisms to maximize early colony growth. Through the analysis of photographic images, this study describes the individual effect of two different strategies, pleometrosis and pupae transplantation, on the growth of Lasius niger colonies. Results showed that both methods had an overall
              positive effect on colony production, albeit the magnitude at which pupae  transplantation boosted colony growth was much larger than pleometrosis. After six weeks, colonies with two and three queens contained, respectively, 26% and 83% more brood than control colonies with only one queen. Queen association also led to overall decreased queen fecundity and death of all resident queens in over 60% of the colonies due to queen fights. After eight weeks, colonies that received 30 or 60 foreign pupae had produced on average 256% more brood than controls and nanitic workers that were 7% longer than those from colonies that did not receive transplanted pupae.

              Keywords: pupae adoption, multiple queens, ant reproduction, colony founding, social insects, formicidae


              Most colonies of Lasius niger are started by a single claustral queen that uses her stored  energy reserves to raise her first brood. However, the high numbers of Lasius queens occurring after mating flights, coupled with the fact that queens avoid areas frequented by workers of established colonies (Sommer & Hölldobler 1995), leads to a high density of new nest foundations in the field.

              In response to crowding and high inter-colony competition, incipient colonies may use two different strategies to gain  competitive advantage.

              One strategy is pleometrosis, where queens enter facultative associations with non-related queens during colony founding (Bernasconi & Strassmann 1999). Such pleometrotic association allows claustral species like L. niger, in which queens have a limited amount of resources to invest in reproduction, to produce more workers than single queens and to do so in shorter time (Waloff 1957, Bartz & Hölldobler 1982, Sommer & Hölldobler 1995). That may translate into (i) a higher foraging success, which will improve early colony growth and survival and (ii) an advantage when it comes to successfully defending the nest against brood raiding, usurpation (Bartz & Hölldobler 1982, Rissing & Pollock 1991, Tschinkel 1992b, Bales & Adams 1997) and predation (Jerome et al. 1998) by neighbouring colonies.

              That said, an alternative reason for pleometrosis can also be a strong pressure for the newly mated queens to leave the soil surface and use any available holes, including those excavated by other queens (Tschinkel 1998). Despite the potential benefits of pleometrosis, there is also an important cost at the queen level, as the emergence of workers and the start of foraging activities generally trigger the onset of queen fights that continue until only one of the queens survives (Sommer & Hölldobler 1995, Bernasconi & Keller 1998, Aron et al. 2009).

              A second strategy to improve competition by increasing early colony growth is the sequestration of foreign pupae and larvae through the raiding of brood from neighbouring colonies. This strategy provides ant colonies in the field with a competitive advantage derived from a rapid increase in the number of individuals in the nest, which leads to earlier colony maturation (Pollock & Rissing 1989, Rissing & Pollock 1991, Tschinkel 1992a, Gadau et al. 2003).

              In addition to building up higher numbers of workers, it may also be advantageous for young colonies to produce larger individuals, as size influences the range of tasks a worker can perform (Wilson 1978, Mirenda & Vinson 1981, Arnan et al. 2011). For example, mature colonies in the field have not only a higher number of workers, but also larger individuals compared to incipient colonies (Porter & Tschinkel 1985, Hasegawa & Imai 2011), and worker polymorphism and task repertoire have been found to correlate with colony size (Anderson & McShea 2001). Whether increased colony growth via pleometrosis or sequestration of foreign pupae leads to production of larger workers, and in this way further improves the competitive abilities of incipient colonies of Lasius niger, remains to be tested.

              In order to elucidate the potential competitive advantage colonies can achieve through pleometrosis and brood raiding, the present study focused on analysing the effects of multiple founding queens and pupae adoption on early colony growth and worker size of Lasius niger.


              Experimental colonies Queens of Lasius niger were collected immediately after their mating flight on 17th July, 2014, in Aarhus, Denmark (56°11’04.9”N 10°07’01.1”E), and were kept individually in plastic test tubes containing water behind a cotton plug. The individuals necessary for the multiple queen experiment (pleometrosis) were placed in groups of 1, 2 or 3 queens per test tube less than 60 minutes after collection to minimize a build-up of territorial behaviour over time. The day after collection, queens were cooled to 16.5°C for 60 minutes for easier manipulation before being transferred into artificial nests.

              METHODS (continued)

              The artificial nests were created in Petri dishes (5.5cm Ø). The lids of the dishes were perforated (single hole, 4mm Ø) to allow the movement of workers in and out of the nest; the bases were partly filled (approximately 2/3 of their volume) with a substrate consisting of a combination of Plaster of Paris and charcoal (8:1). A small piece of tape on the substrate allowed the provision of a drop of water for the queens to drink until the first workers emerged, at which point workers provided the queen with water. The nests
              were then placed in a bigger Petri dish (14cm Ø) that contained a 10cm test tube filled with water and also served as an arena where the feedings would take place. Ad libitum sources of carbohydrate (20% sucrose solution in water) and protein were added when the first workers emerged.

              Protein consisted of house flies, pieces of shrimp and a 1% solution of peptone from bovine meat (Sigma-Aldrich, product number 70175), alternated weekly. All arenas and  nests were kept inside opaque paper boxes in a dark 25°C chamber for the duration of the experiment. Feedings and population assessments were performed outside the chamber, in light conditions and at room temperature (August-September, 2014, mean daily temperature approximately 18°C). 

              Colony assessments
              During the experiment, non-destructive assessments of colony sizes were based on photographic images taken every two weeks (camera: Canon EOS 1000D, lens: EF-S 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 IS).

              The software ImageJ (Open Source: http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/) was used to analyse the images in order to perform counts of brood and workers and to measure colony areas and lengths of nanitic workers. After the last assessment on week eight after the nuptial flight, the ant colonies were exposed to gradually decreasing temperatures (5 days at 20°C followed by 5 more days at 15°C).

              Lower temperatures reduce the activity level of the colonies, making it possible to perform a more exact manual count of the number of pupae and workers that were used to correct the estimations obtained through photographic analysis. The number of eggs and larvae, however, could not be counted manually in this way due to the delicate nature of these stages and our need for keeping the individuals alive for future experiments.


              Statistical analysis
              Seven response variables were analysed in the two experiments. Four of them were readily obtained through analysis of photographic images.

              These were (i) colony area (cm2) measured as the amount of substrate surface occupied by all brood, workers and queen(s), (ii) total number of imago workers (including  transplanted individuals), (iii) total number of brood (i.e. eggs, larvae and pupae) and (iv) average length of intrinsically produced nanitic imago workers. For the brood transplantation experiment, total number of pupae and imago workers were corrected after a more accurate manual count was performed at the end of the experiment. These counts were not available for the multiple queen experiment, due to having to work with results from the analysis of images at week six, as explained above.

              Per capita queen production was calculated in two different ways: (i) for the multiple queen experiment, the total number of eggs, larvae, pupae and imago workers at week six was divided by the number of queens in each colony, (ii) for the pupae transplantation experiment, as imago workers were a mixture of intrinsic an adopted workers, queen production was calculated as the total number of egg, larvae, pupae and workers at week eight, minus the number of transplanted pupae that survived.

              Because an unknown fraction of the eggs in the nest may be consumed by the colony,
              number of brood and per capita queen  production were also analysed after excluding egg counts.

              The software JMP 12.0 was used for statistical analysis. For data on nanitic length, ANOVA was used for overall analysis and TukeyKramer test for multiple comparisons between treatments within experiments. For data on colony areas, normality and variance homogeneity could not be achieved through data transformation and thus Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyse overall differences and paired Wilcoxon tests were used for multiple comparisons. Counts on brood and workers were analysed using generalized linear models with a Poisson log-linear  model, adjusting p-values for pairwise comparisons with sequential Bonferroni correction (Holm 1979).


              This is the first article I ever wrote as first author. My later publications are probably better, but I chose this one as a sample because the full text can be found for free here.